As differentiated from the premise of the developmental models, social role models focus on the roles in which the supervisor engages, and the focus of supervision. Two models will be presented.

The Discrimination Model (Bernard, 1979)

The discrimination model attends to three separate foci for supervision:
1. Intervention Skills: What the trainee is doing in the session that is observable by the supervisor (interventions, skills, techniques, etc.)
2. Conceptualization Skills: How the trainee understands what is occurring in the session, identifies patters, or chooses interventions—all covert processes
3. Personalization Skills: How the trainee interfaces with a personal style with therapy at the same time he or she attempts to keep therapy uncontaminated by personal issues and countertransference responses
**It is noted that others have suggested a fourth category as a focus of supervision but is not in Bernard’s original model.**
4. Professional Behaviors: How the trainee “acts” and attends to professional issues such as ethics, dress, paperwork, etc.
Once a supervisor has made a judgment about the trainee’s abilities within each focus area, a role is chosen to accomplish the supervision goals. Within the supervision process (or session), three roles may be assumed by the supervisor:

1. Teacher
Supervisor takes responsibility for determining what is necessary for the supervisee to learn. Evaluative comments are also part of this role.

2. Counselor
Supervisor addresses the interpersonal or intrapersonal reality of the supervisee. In this way, the supervisee reflects on the meaning of an event for him- or herself.

3. Consultant
Supervisor allows the supervisee to share the responsibility for learning. Supervisor becomes a resource for the supervisee but encourages the supervisee to trust his or her won thoughts, insights, and feelings about the work with the client.

The Hawkins and Shohet Model (1989)

The supervisor’s role is to offer support and reassurance, but also to contain any overwhelming affective responses that a supervisee might have. There are six foci that are addressed in this model.

Focus 1: Reflection on the content of the therapy session (therapist narrative)
Focus 2: Exploration of the strategies and interventions used by the therapist (therapist activity)
Focus 3: Exploration of the therapy process and relationship (therapy process)
Focus 4: Focus on the therapist’s countertransferance (supervisee’s state)
Focus 5: Focus on here-and-now process as a mirror or parallel of the there-and-then
(supervision process). What has been discussed by others as parallel processes.
Focus 6: Focus on the supervisor’s countertransference (supervisor experience)